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Thursday, June 30, 2011

ANNA UNIVERSITY RESULTS APRIL-MAY 2011 ANNOUNCING DATE : Se

Anna University Results 2011 are excepted to release on second week of july 2011 (UNOFFICIAL UPDATE)

1. Paper corrections are already Over by last month(june 2011) 

2. Other official procedures are excepted to complete on first Week Of july 2011

3. Visit  www.annauniv.edu for further Updates

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

CS2308 System Software lab VERY IMPORTANT VIVA QUESTIONS


CS2308 – System Software laboratory

  1. Define System Software.
  2. Define data Format.
  3. What is instruction set?
  4. What is direct addressing mode and indirect addressing mode?
  5. Differentiate between Assembler and Interpreter.
  6. What is little Endian and Big Endian byte ordering?
  7. What is the purpose of register in a system?
  8. List the types of registers used in a system.
  9. What is the size of the memory in a SIC and SIC/XE machines?
  10. What are the instruction formats of SIC/SC?
.

Exercise 1-4
  1. Define Assembler.
  2. What are Assembler directives or pseudo-instructions?
  3. Give some examples for assembler directives.
  4. What are functions required in translation of source program to object code.
  5. What is forward reference?
  6. What are the tree types of records in a simple object program format?
  7. What are the information present in a Header record or Give the format of header record?
  8. What are the information present in a Text record?
  9. What are the information present in a End record?
  10. What are the information present in a Modification record?
  11. What are the information present in a Define record?
  12. What are the information present in a Refer record?
  13. What are functions performed in Pass 1 by a two pass assembler?
  14. What are functions performed in Pass 2 by a two pass assembler?
  15. Name the data structures used by an assembler.
  16. What is OPTAB?
  17. What is SYMTAB?
  18. What is LOCCTR?
  19. What is the information present in intermediate file?
  20. Write down the pass number(PASS1/PASS 2) of the following activities that occur in a two-pass assembler.
  21. What is multiprogramming?
  22. Name the addressing modes used for assembling register-to-memory instructions?
  23. What is the use of BASE and NOBASE?
  24. What is Register to memory instructions?
  25. What is Register to register instructions?
  26. What is the advantage of register-to-register instructions?
  27. What is a relocatable program?
  28. what is relocation?
  29. Name the two methods of performing relocation?
  30. What is the use of modification record?
  31. What are the machine independent assembler features?
  32. What is literal?
  33. What is a literal pool?
  34. What does an assembler perform when it encounters LTORG assembler directive?
  35. Write a program to load the program counter address into the base register using literal.
  36. What is LITTAB or What is basic data structure needed to handle literal?
  37. Name the symbol defining statements.
  38. What is the use of the symbol defining statement EQU?
  39. What is the use of the symbol defining statement ORG?
  40. What are the two types of expression?
  41. What is relative expression?
  42. What is absolute expression?
  43. List the types of Assemblers.
  44. How assemblers handle forward reference instructions?
  45. List the types of one pass Assemblers.
  46. What is load-and-go assembler?
  47. What is multi-pass assembler?
  48. What is MASM assembler?
  49. What is near jump and far jump?
  50. What are the functions of assembler

Exercise 5-9
  1. What is a loader or absolute loader?
  2. What is a bootstrap loader?
  3. Write the algorithm for an absolute loader.
  4. What are the functions of an absolute loader?
  5. What are the disadvantages of an absolute loader or machine dependent loader?
  6. What is a relocating or relative loader?
  7. What is a bit mask?
  8. What is the purpose of the relocation bit in object code of relocation loader or what is a relocation bit?
  9. Define Linker.
  10. Define Linking.
  11. What is control section?
  12. What is external reference?
  13. Define External symbol.
  14. What is EXTDEF?
  15. What is EXTREF?
  16. What are data structures needed for linking loader?
  17. What is the use ESTAB?
  18. What is reference number mechanism?
  19. What is the advantage of reference number mechanism?
  20. What is a load map?
  21. What is automatic library call or library search?
  22. Mention the usage of the directory by a loader?
  23. What are the functions of Pass 1 and Pass 2 of an MS-Dos linker?
24.What is a macro instruction?
25.What is a macro?
26.What are the activities of the macro processing?
27.How does the macro processor help the programmer?
28.What are the two main assembler directives use with macro definitions?
29.What is the logic behind the two-pass macro processor?
30.What is the restriction imposed on a two-pass macro assembler?
31.What are the three main data structures involved in a macro processor?
32.What does the macro definition table contain?
33.What is the purpose of the ARGTAB?
34.How are the ambiguities in parameters avoided in macro processor?
35.Expand the following.
a. SUM            MACRO         &ID
b.                     LDA                X&ID->1
c.                     ADD               X&ID->2
d.                     ADD               X&ID->3
e.                     STA                 X&ID->5
f.                      MEND
                        SUM A

36.What is meant by conditional macro expansion?
37.Define positional parameters.
38.Draw the structure of the ARGTAB.
39.What should be done for recursive macro expansion if the chosen programming language does not support recursion?
40.What is a general purpose macro processor?
41.What are the advantages of a general purpose macro processor?
42.What are the disadvantages of a general purpose macro processor?
43.What is a pre-Processor?
44.What is a line-by-line macro processor?
45.What are the advantages of line-by-line macro processor?
46.How are the macro definitions and expansions handled in ANSI C languages?
47.Give any two examples of macro definitions in ANSI C.
48.In the following macro definition,
#define ABSDIFF(X,Y)[(X)>(Y)?(X)-(Y) : (Y)-(X)]
            Give the expansion for ABSDIFF (I+1,j-5).
49.Explain how macro expansions are controlled in ELENA macro processor.
50.For the following macro definitions.
#define DISPLAY (EXPR) printf(#EXPR “=%d\n”,EXPR)
Give the expansion for the macro invocation DISPLAY (I+J+1)

IT2406 SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE LAB ANNA UNIVERSITY LAB MANUAL FOR ALL EXERCISE


IT2406 SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE LAB


1. Develop at least 5 components such as Order Processing, Payment Processing,
etc., using .NET component technology.
2. Develop at least 5 components such as Order Processing, Payment Processing,
etc., using EJB component technology.
3. Invoke .NET components as web services.
4. Invoke EJB components as web services.
5. Develop a Service Orchestration Engine (workflow) using WS-BPEL and
implement service composition. For example, a business process for planning
business travels will invoke several services. This process will invoke several
airline companies (such as American Airlines, Delta Airlines etc. ) to check the
airfare price and buy at the lowest price.
6. Develop a J2EE client to access a .NET web service.
7. Develop a .NET client to access a J2EE web service.


Click Here To Download The IT2406 Lab Manual

EE2404 ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEM


ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEM 

AIM:

To understand the basics of the problem of Economic Dispatch of optimally adjusting the generation schedules of thermal generating units to meet the system load which are required for unit commitment & Economic operation of power systems.
To understand the development of co-ordination equation (the mathematical model for ED) without and with losses & operating constraints and solution of these equations using direct and iterative methods.

OBJECTIVE:


Ø  To write a program for solving ED problem without and with transmission losses for a given load condition/daily load cycle using
(a)Direct method
(b)Lambda-iteration method
Ø  To study the effect of reduction in operation cost resulting due to changing from simple load dispatch to economic load dispatch.
Ø  To study the effect of change in fuel cost on the economic dispatch for a given load.
Ø  To study the use of ED in finalizing the unit commitment for tomorrow’s operating conditions of power system.

EXERCISE:


1. The system load in a power system varies from 250MW to 1250MW. Two thermal units are operating at all times and meeting the system load. Incremental fuel cost in hundreds of rupees per Megawatt hour for the units are

dF1/dP1 = 0.0056P1 + 5.6   ;           P1 in MW
dF2/dP2 =  0.0067P2 + 4.5  ;           P2 in MW
The operating limits of both the units are given by
100<=P1, P2<=625MW            
Assume that the transmission loss is negligible.
a)      Determine the economic (minimum fuel cost) generation schedule of each unit, the incremental fuel cost of each unit and the incremental cost of received power for different load levels from 250 to 1250MW in steps of 100MW.
b)      Draw the following characteristics from the results obtained in (a)
                                i.            Incremental cost of received power in hundreds of rupees per MW hr  versus system load in MW.
                              ii.            Unit outputs P1 and P2 in MW versus system load in MW.
c)      Determine the saving in fuel cost in hundreds of rupees per hour for the economic distribution of a total load of 550MW between the two units compared with equal distribution of that load between the two units.

INPUT:


Economic Dispatch - Lambda Iteration Method Without Loss
AU Power lab
VII
0.001 0.05    10
2  $/hr  $/MWhr
0.0028 5.6 0 100 625
0.00335 4.5 0 100 625
1
250 1250 100

OUTPUT:

Manual Calculation:
l = (PD + b1/2a1 +b2/2a2)/(1/2a1+1/2a2)
For PD = 550 MW
l= 550 + ((5.6/0.0056 + 4.5/0.0067)/(1/0.0056 + 1/0.0067))
Þ      l = 6.77691 Rs MW/Hr
PG1* = l-b1/2a1 = (6.77691-5.6)/0.0056 = 210.626 MW
PG2* = l-b2/2a2 = (6.77691-4.5)/0.0067 = 339.8374 MW
Fuel Cost:
FC1 = 0.0028 PG12 + 5.6 PG1 + C1 Rs/Hr
FC2 = 0.00335 PG12 + 4.5 PG1 + C2 Rs/Hr
Where C1 & C2 are unknown constants
Fuel Cost for optimal schedule (PG1*, PG2*)
FC1 = 0.0028(210.1626) 2+5.6(210.1626) + C1 Rs/Hr
FC2 = 0.00335(339.8374) 2 + 4.5(339.8374) + C2 Rs/Hr
FC*=FC1+FC2=3216.74+C1C2 Rs/Hr
Fuel Cost for equal Sharing: [PG1 = 275 = PG2]
FC1 = 0.0028(275) 2+5.6(275) + C1 Rs/Hr
FC2 = 0.00335(275) 2 + 4.5(275) + C2 Rs/Hr
FC1 + FC2 = 3242.59 + C1C2 Rs/Hr
Total Saving:
FC = FC – FC* = 3242.59 – 3216.74 = 25.85 Rs/Hr

EXERCISE :

2. For the system in exercise 4.3 take into account the transmission loss.
a.       Determine the economic loading of each unit to meet a total customer load of 550MW, using the program developed in 4.2
b.      What is transmission loss of the system at the economic loading?
c.       Determine the penalty factor for each unit and the incremental fuel cost at each generating bus.
d.      Determine also the incremental cost of received power (or system l).Assume that the loss coefficient in per unit on a 100MVA base of customer load level of 550MW are given by

B11 = 0.008383183

B12 = B21 = -0.000049448
B10/2 = 0.000375082
B22 = 0.005963568
B20/2 = 0.000194971
B00 = 0.000090121

INPUT:

Economic Dispatch - Lambda Iteration Method With Loss
AU Powerlab
2001399126
VII
0.01  0.05  10
2  $/hr   $/MWhr
0.0028 5.6 0 100 625
0.00335 4.5 0 100 625
0.008383183 -0.000049448
0.000049448 0.005963568
0.000375082 0.000194971
0.000090121 100
0
550OUTPUT :
Manual Calculation:

B11 = 8.38*10-3

B12 = -0.049*10-3
B21 = 0
B22 = 5.96*10-3
PL = B11P12 + P22B22 + P1P2B12
PD = P1 + P2 – PL
PD = 550 MW
l = (550 + 5.6/0.0056 + 4.5/0.0067) / (1/0.0056 + 1/0.0067)
Þ l = 6.7767 Rs/MW-Hr
For First Iteration
Assume P2 = 0
P1 = [1-(b1/l)-(2B12P2)]/[(2a1/l)+2B11]

P1 = [1-(5.6/6.776)-0]/[(0.0056/6.776)+0.01676]

P1 = 9.8686 MW

P2 = [1-(b2/l)-(2B21P1)]/[(2a2/l)+2B22]

P2 = [1-(4.5/6.776)-0]/[(0.0067/6.776)+0.01192]

P2 = 23.02 MW

PL = P12B11 + P22B22 + P1P2B12

= [(9.8686)2*(0.00838) + (26.02)2*(0.00596) + 9.8686*26.02*-0.049*10-3]

PL = 4.8387 MW

PD = P1 + P2 – PL

= 9.8686 + 26.02 – 4.838

PD = 31.04 MW

: 3292.06  $/hr

EXERCISE :

3.      A power system with negligible transmission loss, the system load varies from a peak of 1200MW to a valley of 500MW. There are three thermal generating units which can be committed to take the system load. The fuel cost data and generation operation limit data are given below
In hundreds of rupees per hour:
F1 = 392.7 + 5.544P1 + 0.001093P12 ;           P1 in MW
            F2 = 217.0 + 5.495P2 + 0.001358P22 ;           P2 in MW
            F3 = 65.5 + 6.695P3 + 0.004049P32  ;             P3 in MW

Generation Limit:
150<=P1<=600 MW
100<=P2<=400 MW
50<=P3<=200 MW
There are no other constant on system operation. Obtain an optimum (minimum fuel cost) with commitment table for each load level taken in steps of 100 MW from 1200 to 500.Adopt “Brute force enumeration” technique. For each load level obtain economic schedule using economic dispatch program developed in ex 4.3 for each feasible combination of units and choose the lowest fuel cost schedule among the combination.
Show the details of economic schedule and the component and total cost of operation for each feasible combination of unit for the load level of 900MW.

INPUT:

Economic Dispatch - Lambda Iteration Method
Without Loss
AU Power lab
2003557
VII
0.001 0.05    5
3             $/hr      $/MWhr
0.001093 5.544 392.7 150 600
0.001358 5.495 217.0 100 400
0.004049 6.695 65.50 50 200
1
500 1200 100

EE2404 LOAD-FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE-AREA AND TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS


LOAD-FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE-AREA AND TWO AREA POWER SYSTEMS

AIM:
To become familiar with the modeling and analysis of load-frequency and tie-line flow dynamics of a power system with load-frequency controller (LFC) under different control modes and to design improved controllers to obtain the best system response.

OBJECTIVES:

1.      To study the time response (both steady state and transient) of area frequency deviation    and transient power output change of regulating generator following a small load change in a single-area power system with the regulating generator under “free governor action”, for different operating conditions and different system parameters.
2.       To study the time response (both steady state and transient) of area frequency deviation and turbine power output change of regulating generator following a small load change in a single- area power system provided with an integral frequency controller, to study the effect of changing the gain of the controller and to select the best gain for the controller to obtain the best response.
3.       To analyze the time response of area frequency deviations and net interchange deviation following a small load change in one of the areas in an inter connected two-area power system under different control modes, to study the effect of changes in controller parameters on the response and to select the optimal set of parameters for the controller to obtain the best response under different operating conditions.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:
‘LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL’ module of AU Power Lab or equivalent

EXERCISES

1. It is proposed to simulate using the software available the load-frequency dynamics of a single-area power system whose data are given below:
Rated capacity of the area = 2000 MW
Normal operating load = 1000 MW
Nominal frequency = 50 Hz
Inertia constant of the area = 5.0 s
Speed regulation (governor droop)
of all regulating generators = 4 percent
Governor time constant = 0.08 s
Turbine time constant = 0.3 s
Assume linear load–frequency characteristics which means the connected system load increases by one percent if the system frequency increases by one percent. The area has a governor control but not a load-frequency controller. The area is subjected to a load increase of 20 MW.
(a) Simulate the load-frequency dynamics of this area using available software and check the following:
(i) Steady – state frequency deviation Dfs in Hz. Compare it with the hand-calculated value using “Area Frequency Response Coefficient” (AFRC).
(ii) Plot the time response of frequency deviation Df in Hz and change in turbine power DPT in p.u MW upto 20 sec. What is value of the peak overshoot in Df?
(b) Repeat the simulation with the following changes in operating condition, plot the time
response of Df and compare the steady-state error and peak overshoot.
(i) Speed regulation = 3 percent
(ii) Normal operating load = 1500 MW

Hz
MANUAL CALCULATION: A)LOAD FREQ SINGLE AREA- PROBLEM 1(a)                                                          
Steady State frequency deviation   Δfs=-(M/b) Hz
 where
 b=Area Frequency Response Coefficient(AFRC)=D+(1/R) Hz/p.u.M.W.
 M is in p.u.MW =20/2000=0.01 p.u.MW/Hz
                     D =20/2000=0.01 p.u.MW/Hz
                    1/R=1000/2000=0.5 p.u.MW/Hz
b=0.01+0.5=0.51 p.u MW/Hz
Δfs = -(M/b)Hz      = -(0.01)/(0.51)
Δfs = -0.0196 Hz

MANUAL CALCULATION: B)LOAD FREQ SINGLE AREA- PROBLEM 1(b)                                                          
Steady State frequency deviation   Δfs=-(M/b) Hz
 where
 b=Area Frequency Response Coefficient(AFRC)=D+(1/R) Hz/p.u.M.W.
 M is in p.u.MW =20/2000=0.01 p.u.MW/Hz
                    D =30/2000=0.015 p.u.MW/Hz
                   1/R=1333/2000=0.666 p.u.MW/Hz
b=0.015+0.666=0.681 p.u MW/Hz
Δfs = -(M/b)Hz      = -(0.01)/(0.681)
Δfs = -0.01467 Hz

COMPARISON OF A AND B:
D
R
Δfs Hz
Δf peak Hz
0.01
4%
-0.0196
-0.0256
0.015
3%
-0.0155
-0.0215


2. Assume that the single-area power system given in exercise 9.5.1 is provided with a load frequency controller (an integral controller) whose gain KI can be tuned.
(a) Carryout the simulation for the same disturbance of load change of 20 MW for different values of KI, obtain the time response Df for each case, critically compare these responses and comment on their suitability for practical application.
9-13
(Hint: For choosing different values of KI, first set the governor and turbine time
constants to zero and determine analytically the value of integral gain KI,cr to have
critical damping on the response Df (t). Choose the range of KI to include
KI,cr as 0 £ KI £ ( KI,cr + 1.0 ) )
(b) From the investigations made in (a) above, choose the best value of KI which gives an “optimal” response Df (t) with regard to peak overshoot, settling time, steady-state error and Mean Sum- Squared-Error (MSSE).


3 It is proposed to simulate the load frequency dynamics of a two-area power system. Both the areas are identical and has the system parameters given in exercise 9.5.1. Assume that the tie-line has a capacity of Pmax 1-2 = 200 MW and is operating at a power angle of ( d01- d20 ) = 300. Assume that both the areas do not have load –frequency controller. Area 2 is subjected to a load increase of 20 MW.
(a) Simulate the load-frequency dynamics of this system using available software and
check the following:(i). Steady-State frequency deviation Dfs in Hz and tie-line flow deviation, DP12,S inp.u. MW. Compare them with hand-calculated values using AFRC’s
(ii) Compare result Dfs with that obtained in single area simulation in exercise 1
(a), and comment on the support received from area 1 and the advantages of
interconnecting with neighbouring areas .
(iii) Plot the time responses, Df1(t), Df2 (t), DPT1(t) , DPT2(t) and DP12(t). Comment
on the peak overshoot of Df1, and Df2.


MANUAL CALCULATION:TWO AREA LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL PROGRAM OUTPUT
Δfs  = -(M1+M2)/( b1+b2)
M1 =0;M2=0.01 p.u .MW/Hz
b1  =b2=0.51 p.u .MW/Hz (identical areas)
Δfs = - (0.01)/(0.51+0.51)= - 0.0098 Hz
ΔP1-2s = - ΔP1-2s = ( b1M2- b2M1)/ ( b1+b2) p.u .MW
                          = (0.51*0.01)/(0.51+0.51)
                          = 10 MW.

Comparison of manual calculation and simulated values.
MANUALY CALCULATED VALUES
SIMULATED VALUES
Δfs = - 0.0098 Hz

ΔP1-2s=10MW


EE2404 ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS


ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS

AIM:
  1. To study and understand the electromagnetic transient phenomena in power systems caused due to switching and fault by using Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).
  2. To become proficient in the usage of EMTP to address problems in the areas of over voltage protection and mitigation and insulation coordination of EHV systems.

OBJECTIVES:

(i)                 To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a non-ideal source with line represented by Π – model.
(ii)               To study the transients due to energization of a single-phase and three-phase load from a non-ideal source and line represented by distributed parameters.
(iii)             To study the transient over voltages due to faults for a SLG fault at far end of a line.
(iv)             To study the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) associated with a breaker for a three-phase fault.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:             ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS PROGRAM –
UBC version module of AU Power lab or equivalent
EXCERCISE:
Prepare the data for the network given in the Annexure and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of source voltage, load bus voltage and load current following the Energization of a single-phase load. Comment on the results. Double the source inductance and obtain the plots of the variables mentioned earlier. Comment on the effect of doubling the source inductance.
Energization of a single phase 0.95 pf load from a non ideal source and a more realistic line representation (lumped R, L, C):

Circuit Diagram:



Exercise
1 Prepare the data for the network given in the Annexure 8.1 and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of source voltage, load bus voltage and load current following the energisation of a single-phase load and obtain the plots





Output




2. Prepare the data for the network given in the Annexure 8.2 and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of voltages of phases a, b, c at the load bus and switch A current of phase a following energisation of the three-phase load by closing the switches simultaneously. 









Output






3. Prepare the data for the network given in the Annexure 8.3 and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of voltages at source, Bus 1 and Bus 12 following the energisation of the single phase open ended line represented by distributed parameters. Obtain the plot of voltage at Bus 12 by expanding the time scale by a factor of ten, i.e, plot the voltage for the first 2.5 millisecond.


Output


4 Prepare the data for energisation of a three-phase load fed by a three-phase distributed parameter line as given in the Annexure 8.4 and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of voltages at source, Bus 1 and phase a voltage at Bus 12 following the energisation by simultaneous closing of all the three phases
Output






5 Prepare the data for the network given in the Annexure 8.5 and run EMTP. Obtain the plots of voltages at source, Bus 1 and Bus 2 following a single lineto- ground fault at the far end, Bus 2.


 Output


6. Prepare the data for the network given in Annexure 8.6 and run EMTP. Obtain the transient recovery voltage (TRV) in each phase for a three-phase fault at Bus 1. The TRVs are the voltages across the switches between Bus1 and BKR1.



Output
















INPUT DATA:




ENERGIZATION OF LOAD-EMTP EXPERIMENT NO: 1                                     
.5E-4     .5E-1 -1     1                                                  
 SRC  BUS1               .0         6.0       .0                                   
 BUS1 BUS12            .05       2.0       .0                                   
 BUS1                                     .0         .0         .81                                    
 BUS12                                   .0         .0         .84                                   
 BUS12BUS13S         .0         6.0       .0                                   
 BUS13L                                 22.61               19.72               .0                                   
 BUS13SBUS13L       .1E-2  .9999E+4                  1                                                                              
14   SRC 1                  .5634E+2      .60E+2   .0E+0      -.1E+1  .9999E+4
SRCBUS13L