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Sunday, October 16, 2011

Graphics Lab and Multimedia lab viva questions for anna university students


Multimedia:
Types of media: Linear, Non Linear   
WWW: World Wide Web maintained & developed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is stateless request/response protocol
Request Format:                                            Response Format:     
METHOD URI Version                            Version Status-Code Status-Phrase
Additional-Headers                                           Additional-Headers                              
Message-Body                                                 Message-Body
Ex:       GET http://www.google.com HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server
HTTP methods: GET/ POST
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language, collection of tags with format <token params></token>
DHTML: Dynamic HTML with CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
XML: Extensible Markup Language: full structured language using DTD (Document Type Definition)
XSL: XML Style Sheet for XML presentation: it is CSS for XML.
XSL parts: XSL Transformations (XSLT), XML Path Language (XPath), XSL Formatting Objects
SMIL: Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language for multimedia presentation using markup language.
SMIL 2.0: is specified by XML using modularization, Language Profiles.
SMIL tags: <par>, <audio>,<video>,<text>,<seq>
Multimedia Components: Text, Image, Video, Audio, Graphics; Color components: Red, Blue, Green (Alpha)
Types of Graphics/Image Representation:
1-bit/binary/monochrome image: 1 pixel or pel takes 1 bit with 2 colors (black (0), white (1))
8-bit gray/ bitmap scale image: 1 pixel takes 8 bit bits with 256 colors (0-255),
Resolution: number of pixels in image; Aspect ration: ratio between width & height of image Ex: 4:3
Frame buffer: used to store image in hardware.
24-bit image: 1 pixel takes 24 bits with (256)3 colors; but it takes 32 bits as R+G+B (24 bits)+ Alpha (8 bits)=32
8-bit color image: 1 pixel takes 8 bits with 256 selected colors using color histogram, with Color Look up Table.
Image file formats:
GIF: Graphics Interchange Format by UNISYS with GIF87a, GIF89a versions; GIF Components: GIF signature, Screen Descriptor, Global Color Map, Local Color Map, Image Descriptor, Raster Data, GIF terminator.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group by ISO
PNG: Portable Network Graphics;         TIFF: Tagged Image File Format;         EXIF: Exchange Image File;
PS: Post Script             PDF: Portable Document Format          WMF: Windows Meta File          BMP: BitMap
Color models for Images: RGB (additive) for CRT displays, CMY (subtractive color model), CMYK for printers
Color models for Videos: YUV for PAL video, YIQ for NTSC or TV broadcasting, YCbCr for digital video.
Types of Video signals: (Analog and Digital)
Component video: 3 lines(R, G, B), used YUV/ YIQ, no crosstalk, with more bandwidth, good synchronization.
Composite Video: 2 lines (Chrominance/Color, Luminance/Intensity), uses YUV/YIQ, for VCRs.
Super Video: 2 lines (luminance, composite signal), , more cross talk, low band width.
Analog video types:
NTSC video: by North America & Japan, with 30 fps, 525 scan lines, 6.0 MHz channel width, 4:3 aspect ratio.
PAL Video: Phase Altering Line, by Germans, with 25 fps, 625 scan lines, 8.0 MHz channel width, 4:3 aspect ratio.
SECAM video: Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memorie, 25 fps, 625 scan lines, 8.0 MHz channel width, 4:3.
Digital Video types:
Chroma Subsampling: 4:4:4, 4:2:2, 4:1:1, 4:2:0
CCIR: Consultative Committee for International Radio, versions: CCIR 601, CCIR 601, CIF, QCIF;
Digitization: Quantization, Sampling   Sample Rate: number of samples per second
Nyquest therom: falias=fsampling-ftrue or ftrue<fsampling<2xftrue
SNR: Signal to Noise Ratio;      SQNR: Signal to Quantization Noise Ration;
Basic Audio Compressing Techniques: PCM( Pulse Code Modulation), DPCM, DM (Delta Modulation)
Audio File Formats: mp3, wav
Lossless Compression Techniques: RLC (Run Length Coding), VLC (Variable Length Coding), Huffman Coding, Shannon Fano Algorithm, Dictionary based Coding, Arithmetic Coding.
Lossy Compression Techniques: DCT (Discrete Cosine Transforms), Wavelet Transforms.
Video Compression Techniques: H. 261, MPEG1, MPEG2
Video Formats: dat, avi, mpeg, 3gp, mp4,wmv

Action Script:
.fla à flash application file                   .asà action script file               .swfàshockwave file
Procedure to create Flash application or Action script Class:
Fileà General Tab à Flash Document Option à Click OK         for flash application.
Fileà General Tab à ActionScript File Option à Click OK          for action script class.
Procedure to set Class Path in flash application:
Edità Preferences à ActionScript à ActionScript 2.0 Settings à Add new class path in the dialog box
Procedure to create Symbol:
Insert à New Symbol à Enter name of Symbol à Type of symbol (Movie Clip/ Button/ Graphics) à Click OK
Procedure to create MovieClip:
1.    Insert à New Symbol à Enter name of Symbol à Type of symbol as Movie Clip à Click OK
2.    Using createEmptyMovieClip(“mc”,1); function in the layer
Procedure to add image to library:
FileàImportàImport to Library       for loading image  into library, WindowàLibrary      for opening library window
Procedure to add Textbox:
1.    Using Text Tool on tool bar
2.    Window à Componets à User InterfaceàTextInput
3.    using this.createTextField(name,depth,x,y,w,h) function
Procedure to add User Interface Components (TextField, Button, TextArea, ScrollBar, ComboBox):
Window à Componets à User InterfaceàSelect required componet
Basic Data types: Number, String, Boolean, Array, Object, Date, arguments, System, Error, Function
Built in Classes: MovieClip, Math, Color, Mouse, Button, Key, TextField
MovieClip Class Methods:
attachMovie(id:String, name:String, depth:Number) : MovieClipàTakes a symbol from the library and attaches it to the movie clip.
beginFill(rgb:Number, [alpha:Number]) : Void à Indicates the beginning of a new drawing path.
beginGradientFill(fillType:String, colors:Array, alphas:Array, ratios:Array, matrix:Object) : Void à Indicates the beginning of a new drawing path.
clear() : Void à Removes all the graphics created during runtime.
createEmptyMovieClip(name:String, depth:Number) : MovieClip à Creates an empty movie clip as a child of an existing movie clip.
createTextField(instanceName:String, depth:Number, x:Number, y:Number, width:Number, height:Number) : TextField
Creates a new, empty text field as a child of the movie clip on which you call this method.
curveTo(controlX:Number, controlY:Number, anchorX:Number, anchorY:Number) : Void      à Draws a curve
duplicateMovieClip(name:String, depth:Number, [initObject:Object]) : MovieClip à Creates an instance of the specified movie clip.
endFill() : Void à Applies a fill to the lines and curves added since the last call to beginFill() or beginGradientFill().
getURL(url:String, [window:String], [method:String]) : Void à Loads a document from the specified URL into the specified window.
gotoAndPlay(frame:Object) : Void à Starts playing the SWF file at the specified frame.
gotoAndStop(frame:Object) : Void à Brings the playhead to the specified frame of the movie clip and stops it there.
lineStyle(thickness:Number, rgb:Number, alpha:Number, pixelHinting:Boolean, noScale:String, capsStyle:String, jointStyle:String, miterLimit:Number) : Void àSpecifies a line style that Flash uses for subsequent calls to lineTo() and curveTo().
lineTo(x:Number, y:Number) : Void àDraws a line using the current line style from the current drawing position to (x, y).
loadMovie(url:String, [method:String]) : Void à Loads SWF or JPEG files into a movie clip in Flash Player.
moveTo(x:Number, y:Number) : Void à Moves the current drawing position to (x, y).
nextFrame() : Void à Sends the playhead to the next frame and stops it.
play() : Void à Moves the playhead in the Timeline of the movie clip.
prevFrame() : Void à Sends the playhead to the previous frame and stops it.
removeMovieClip() : Void à Removes a movie clip instance.
setMask(mc:Object) : Void à Makes the movie clip in the parameter mc a mask that reveals the calling movie clip.
stop() : Void à Stops the movie clip currently playing.
unloadMovie() : Void à Removes the contents of a movie clip instance.
MovieCip Class Events:
onEnterFrame = function() {} à Invoked repeatedly at the frame rate of the SWF file.
onKeyDown = function() {} àInvoked when a movie clip has input focus and a key is pressed.
onKeyUp = function() {} à Invoked when a key is released.
onLoad = function() {} à Invoked when the movie clip is instantiated and appears in the Timeline.
onMouseDown = function() {} à Invoked when the mouse button is pressed.
onMouseMove = function() {} à Invoked when the mouse moves.
onMouseUp = function() {} à Invoked when the mouse button is released.
onPress = function() {} à Invoked when the user clicks the mouse while the pointer is over a movie clip.
onRelease = function() {} à Invoked when the mouse button is released over a movie clip.
onRollOut = function() {} à Invoked when the pointer moves outside a movie clip area.
onRollOver = function() {} àInvoked when the pointer moves over a movie clip area.
Math Class Methods:
abs(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns an absolute value for the number specified by the parameter x.
acos(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the arc cosine of the number specified in the parameter x, in radians.
asin(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the arc sine for the number specified in the parameter x, in radians.
atan(tangent:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the value, in radians, of the angle whose tangent.
ceil(x:Number) : Numberà Returns the ceiling of the specified number or expression.
cos(x:Number) : Numberà Computes and returns the cosine of the specified angle in radians.
exp(x:Number) : NumberàReturns the value of ex.
floor(x:Number) : NumberàReturns the floor of the number or expression specified in the parameter x.
log(x:Number) : NumberàReturns the natural logarithm of parameter x.
max(x:Number, y:Number) : NumberàEvaluates x and y and returns the larger value.
min(x:Number, y:Number) : NumberàEvaluates x and y and returns the smaller value.
pow(x:Number, y:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns x to the power of y.
random() : NumberàReturns a pseudo-random number n, where 0 <= n < 1.
round(x:Number) : NumberàRounds the value of the parameter x up or down to the nearest integer and returns the value.
sin(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the sine of the specified angle in radians.
sqrt(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the square root of the specified number.
tan(x:Number) : NumberàComputes and returns the tangent of the specified angle.
Color Class Methods:
getRGB() : NumberàReturns the R+G+B combination currently in use by the color object.
getTransform() : ObjectàReturns the transform value set by the last Color.setTransform () call.
setRGB(offset:Number) : VoidàSpecifies an RGB color for a Color object.
setTransform(transformObject:Object) : VoidàSets color transform information for a Color object.
Array Class Methods:
concat([value:Object]) : ArrayàConcatenates the elements with the elements in  array and creates a new array.
join([delimiter:String]) : StringàConverts the elements in an array to strings, inserts the specified separator between the elements, concatenates them, and returns the resulting string.
pop() : ObjectàRemoves the last element from an array and returns the value of that element.
push(value:Object) : NumberàAdds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length of the array.
reverse() : VoidàReverses the array in place.
shift() : ObjectàRemoves the first element from an array and returns that element.
sort([compareFunction:Object], [options:Number]) : ArrayàSorts the elements in an array.
toString() : StringàReturns a string value representing the elements in the specified Array object.
unshift(value:Object) : NumberàAdds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length of the array.


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