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Friday, April 1, 2011

BIOREACTOR – CASE STUDY


DEFINITION:
           Fermenters are large quantities cylindrical tanks, which provide controlled environment for growth of microorganism or any cells to obtain a desired product.

BODY CONSTRUCTION:
GLASS:
1.      Provide smooth, corrosion proof surface
2.      It is non-toxic
3.      Examination of interior of the vessel is easy
STAINLESS STEEL:
 1.It limits corrosion.
 2.Its combination with molybdenum improves resistance to halogen salts.
3. Contamination is less.
4.Cost effective
  SEALING:
    Sealing of top and bottom plates to the body of the fermantor can be done using
-          Netryl/Butyl rubbers
-          Glass/metal sealing with compressible gasket
-          Oring (single/double)
AGITATOR:
Use:
      To maintain uniform environment throughout the vessel content, oxygen transfer, heat transfer suspension of solid particles.
Types:
     Disc turbines, vaned disc,open turbines of variable pitch, propellers

MECHANISM:
  1. Agitator give rise to small air bubbles when air hits the disc.
  2. Bubble break up gives rise to gas filled cavities.
  3. Gas dispersion occurs from gas filled cavities.
STIRRED GLASS AND BREAKINGS:
            Stirring mechanism is ideal for animal cell culture.
            Four to eight baffles may be used according to the vessel.
            It has similar action to agitator.
BAFFLES:
            Baffles are metal strips roughly 1/10th of vessel diameter
            Four to eight baffles may be used accordingly to the vessel.
            It has a similar action to agitator.
SPARGER:
            Devices used for producing air into the liquid in fermentor.
Types:
            Porous sparger, Orifice sparger, nozzle sparger.

MECHANISM:
            Air holes emit are present on the under surface of the tubes
            These holes emit air from tubes under a reduced pressure.
ASEPTIC INOCULATION PIPE:
            Addition of innoculum, nutrient & other supplements are done with the aseptic inoculation pipe.
            Positive pressure should be maintained in the pipe to prevent entry of microorganisms, dust etc.
SAMPLING PORT:
            It should be maintained asceptically with the help of steam.
            Removal of both and its transport should takes place contaminant condition.
            Sampling helps 10 moniters and control physiochemical parameters.
SENSORS PROBES:
            To maintain and monitor physiochemical parameter insites.
            Glass probes with double ‘O’ ring seal are normally used.
VALUES AND STEAM PROBES:
              Values are used to controlling the flow rate of liquid gases.
               They are also used to control backward flow of fluids.
TYBES:
         Gate values, globe values, piston values, needle valves, plug valves, ball valves, butterfluy valves, and pinch valves, diaphram valves.
STEAM TRAP:
          It is used to remove steam condensate from the fermentors.
          It consists of valve and seat assembly with operator on the basis of properties of fluid.




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