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Monday, March 14, 2011

AT2255 PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION TEST ON MULTI-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE


PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION TEST ON MULTI-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE
AIM:
            To find the load and emission characteristics of the four stroke four-cylinder CI engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

            Engine test rig, Tachometer, Stop watch, and emission analyzer

ENGINE DETAILS:

            Brake Power                           :           P          in kW
            Bore diameter                         :           D         mm
            Stroke                                      :           L          mm
            Calorific value                         :           CV      kJ / kg
            Density of fuel                                    :           ρf         grams / cc
            Orifice Area                            :           A         m2
           
FORMULAE:
            1. Brake power:

                        BP = 2πNT / (60 x 1000)        kW

                                Where,
                        N         = Number of revolutions of Brake Drum per min
                        T          = Load torque in Nm
            2. Total Fuel consumption:
                        TFC = (/ tf) x ρf x (3600/1000)         kg / hr

                        Where,
                        tf = Time taken to consume cc of fuel in seconds
                        ρf = Density of fuel in Grams per cc
           
3. Specific fuel consumption per hour:

                        SFC = TFC / BP         kg / kW hr

4. Brake thermal efficiency:
           
                        hbth =  BP x 3600 x 100 / (TFC x CV)  %
           
            5. Brake mean effective pressure:

                        BMEP = BP x 60 /(100 x LAnk)   bar

Where,
                                    n = cycles per minute = N/2 for four stroke engines
                                    k = Number of cylinders
                                    L = Stroke length, m
                                    A = Area = p /4 D2

DESCRIPTION:
            The engine is a four-stroke, four-cylinder, water cooled diesel engine connected with eddy current dynamometer. Performance test is done to find the fuel consumption and thermal efficiency at various loading conditions. Engine emissions are measured with a five gas analyzer which gives the volume % of CO, CO2 O2, and the ppm of NOx and UBHC.
PROCEDURE:
1.      Engine is started by rotating the crank by means of a crank lever. Engine is allowed to pick up speed and cooling water is supplied to the engine.
2.      Rated load of the engine is calculated.
3.      Load is applied gradually in steps till 10% over load is reached.
4.      Note down the time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption.
5.      Note the emission readings, from five gas analyzer for CO, CO2, NOx and UBHC.
6.      Repeat the experiment for different loads and speeds.

OBSERVATION:
S.no
Speed
rpm
Torque
N-m
Time taken for x cc of fuel consumption
(Sec)
Exhaust Emissions
CO
(%)
CO2
(%)
NOx
(ppm)
UHBC
(ppm)
1







2







3







4







5









RESULT:

S.
no
Brake Power(kW)
TFC
(kg/hr)
SFC
(kg/kWhr)
Brake thermal efficiency (hbth %)
BMEP (bar)

1





2





3





4





5






GRAPH:
Performance characteristics:
1.      Speed vs. Torque
2.      Speed vs. TFC
3.      Speed vs. SFC
4.      Speed vs.  hbth
5.      Speed vs. BMEP

Emission characteristics:
1.       Speed vs. CO
2.       Speed vs. CO2
3.       Speed vs. NOx
4.       Speed vs. UHBC

Thus the load test on single cylinder four-stroke vertical diesel engine is performed and its performance characteristics are plotted.
INFERENCE:
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