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Wednesday, March 30, 2011

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON WHEEL


CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON WHEEL

AIM:
         To conduct load test on pelton wheel turbine and to study the characteristics of pelton wheel turbine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

1.      Venturimeter
2.      Stopwatch
3.      Tachometer
4.      Dead weight
FORMULAE:
        
              1. VENTURIMETER READING:
                                               
                               h = (P1 ~ P2) ´ 10           (m of water)
                    Where,
                          P1, P2   - venturimeter reading in     Kg /cm2    

               2. DISCHARGE:
                                   
                                  Q = 0.0055 ´ Ö h             (m3 / s)

               3. BRAKE HORSE POWER:
                                 
                                BHP = (p x D x N x T) / (60 ´75)         (hp)
                Where,
                     N = Speed of the turbine in              (rpm)
                     D = Effective diameter of brake drum = 0.315 m
                     T  = Torsion in To + T1 – T2           (Kg)

              4. INDICATED HORSE POWER:
                                     IHP = (1000 ´ Q ´ H) / 75         (hp)
                Where,
                        H = Total head        (m)

               5. PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY:
                         
                                                %h = (B.H.P / I.H.P x 100)    (%)

DESCRIPTION:

               Pelton wheel turbine is an impulse turbine, which is used to act on high loads and for generating electricity. All the available heads are classified in to velocity energy by means of spear and nozzle arrangement. Position of the jet strikes the knife-edge of the buckets with least relative resistances and shocks. While passing along the buckets the velocity of the water is reduced and hence an impulse force is supplied to the cups which in turn are moved and hence shaft is rotated.

PROCEDURE:

1.       The Pelton wheel turbine is started.
2.      All the weight in the hanger is removed.
3.      The pressure gauge reading is noted down and it is to be maintained constant for different loads.
4.       The venturimeter readings are noted down.
5.       The spring balance reading and speed of the turbine are also noted down.
6.       A 5Kg load is put on the hanger, similarly all the corresponding readings are noted down.
7.       The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated.
 GRAPHS:
               The following graphs are drawn.
1.      BHP Vs IHP
               2.  BHP Vs speed
               3.  BHP Vs Efficiency
RESULT:

               Thus the performance characteristics of the Pelton Wheel Turbine is done and the maximum efficiency of the turbine is ………. %




h   %








I.H.P   hp






                                                                                                                                                                                    Mean =

B.H.P hp







Discharge
Q x10-3
m3\sec







Tension
[T]
Kg







Spring
Balance
T2
Kg







Weigh of hanger
[T1]
kg







Speed of turbine
N
Rpm







Weight of hanger To
Kg







H= (P1-P2) x 10
m of water







Venturimeter reading
Kg\cm2
P2






P1







Total Head
[H]
m of water







Pressure
Gauge
Reading
[Hp]
Kg\cm2








S.no






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